中國食物與酒文化

Cheng Chan  單聲

drchan thumbnailDid you know that Minister Li Hongzhang of the Qing Dynasty was a food connoisseur and had lived in luxurious environment with numerous servants and cooks under his employment?

清末大臣李鴻章,他是一個愛吃的專家。生活華麗,家裏廚師傭僕數十人。

 

 

English Translation

 

Did you know that Minister Li Hongzhang of the Qing Dynasty was a food connoisseur and had lived in luxurious environment with numerous servants and cooks under his employment? For instance, simply for the consumption of crabs, he possessed a big spectacular box containing more than ten appliances, including fork, pliers, tongs, hammer and so on. He was a late sleeper and took pleasure in eating suppers. On a particular night while away on business he decided to dine with his subordinates in a Chinese restaurant. That night business was exceptionally good, it was packed with customers and due to this reason, there were insufficient ingredients available. Finally the head chef improvised a big stir fry dish cooked with various types of vegetables with shredded meat plus a few other ready made dishes to satiate the hunger of Minister Li and his staff. After savouring the dish, he was impressed by its novelty. He was intrigued to know the name of this delectable dish and pondered why he had never encountered it. The chef was Cantonese and answered in his native dialect that the dish was known as ‘Chop Suey’. This was the birth of ‘Chop Suey’ and subsequently became popular because Minister Li loved it so and since then had never failed to order it whenever he went to a Chinese restaurant.

China is a nation that enjoys wine and has widely influenced the work of many famous people, for instance, Li Bai the famous ancient poet used to compose good poems when he was drunk while some artists could only be creative when intoxicated. Alcohol has also brought about the ‘Drunken style’ in the martial arts and the ‘Drunken words’ by Zhao Yizhou, the famous British calligrapher who is unable to write if he is not under the influence of alcohol. He even mixed ink with wine to produce genuine drunken words. The ink in the middle of the words is more concentrated while the edges are diluted due to the wine and together they created rather alluring effects in his work. His work will be displayed this 28th of October 2011 during the ‘Painting and Calligraphy Competition to commemorate the 100th year Chinese Revolution. Interested parties are welcomed to attend this exhibition to admire his beautiful ‘Drunken’ creation.

The process of wine making includes fermenting and refining using the five grains or fruits. Chinese wines are made from grain, wheat, rice, corn etc, very dissimilar from foreign ones that are fermented using grapes and apples. Chinese wines are matured in earthen jars while foreign ones are kept in wooden barrels. In China, they are categorised as white wine, red wine, vino fino and dry white wines of high alcohol volume, like ‘Maotai’, ‘Five grain wine’, ‘Erguotou’ and so on.

In ancient times, it was customary for people from the south to produce their own wine. When a daughter was born, a large amount of wine would be brewed and kept underneath the bed awaiting to be drunk during her wedding banquet. This wine is thus named as ‘Nǚ'ér Hong’ (Daughter Red), similarly there is another called ‘Zhuang Yuan Hong’ (Scholar Red) that was brewed for the birth of a son that would be consumed upon his success.

This alcohol drinking trend is still prevalent in China, one would swig to the degree of drunkenness before calling it a night. Drinking is not a bad thing as it encourages blood flow, is refreshing and can act as an antidepressant but if one is not careful and gets addicted, then it would cause health issues with the liver, spleen, stomach etc. One must also be aware that drink driving is also dangerous and is an offence in many countries. There should be abstinence and discipline in whatever we do, if one drinks a couple of glasses daily, it is not detrimental and might be good for health and could be an enhancement for longevity. In a recent article, it had been reported that many of the centenarians have the habit of alcohol consumption. If we look at the lives of people in the ancient days, we will discover that many bronze containers were used for alcohol storage. It is evident that our ancestors from thousands of years ago already had the custom of alcohol consumption and can be considered as part of our Chinese tradition and culture.

繁體文本

 

清末大臣李鴻章,他是一個愛吃的專家。生活華麗,家裏廚師傭僕數十人。單看他吃螃蟹的用具就有數十件:叉子、鉗子、夾子、錘子,洋洋大觀一大盒。李鴻章是夜貓子,他愛吃夜點心。有次他出差到國外,晚上肚子餓了,他就與手下一班人到中國飯店去吃飯。那天這家中國飯店生意特好,廚房大廚知道來的是大客人,設法拒絕因飯店廚房菜蔬所剩有限,就只能將各種不同菜蔬加些肉絲炒了一大盤,與其他幾碟預備好的菜一起送上檯去。李鴻章可能肚子餓了,經過品嘗之下,他對那盤大雜燴非常有興趣,主要是因爲他從來沒有見到過也更沒有吃過。於是他就叫大廚來問一問,這個菜叫什麽名字,我怎麽從來沒有吃過。大廚是廣東人,就用廣東話回答他,此菜名叫「雜碎」(Chop Suey)。這道菜從此出了名,因爲李鴻章愛吃。他每到中國飯店,一定會點這道菜。

中國人是愛喝酒的民族,中國名詩人李白不醉就寫不出好詩。中國拳術有醉拳,畫師有喝醉了才能畫。英倫名書法家趙翼舟,不醉不能作書法。他甚至還將酒滲在墨裏,寫出醉字來。字的中間是色濃墨,字邊上因爲有酒形成了濃化的一圈醉字,非常迷人。今年十月二十八日紀念辛亥革命一百年書畫展及書法比賽就有他的大作。有興趣習書法的可以去欣賞趙大師的書法大作 —— 醉字。

中國酒與外國酒不同的地方是,中國酒用五穀米麥玉米等等來釀酒。而外國西洋人一致用葡萄,蘋果來釀酒。中國酒裝在罎子裏,外國酒裝在木桶酒瓶裏。中國酒分白酒、紅酒、黃酒及酒精度較高的白乾酒,像茅臺、五糧液、二鍋頭等等。酒是用五糧或水果發酵之後提煉而成的。

古時南方人家都會釀酒,生了女兒就必須要釀一大批的酒,存在床底下,等女兒出嫁時取出來宴客。此酒名爲「女兒紅」。至於另外有一種名叫「狀元紅」的酒是不是民間生了兒子,才釀出來等兒子中了狀元才宴客用就不得而知。

至今在中國各地仍飲酒成風,幾乎到不醉不休的程度。其實喝酒,有節制得喝並不是一件壞事,可以活血又可以提神解憂,可是喝酒成癮就不好,會傷肝脾胃髒,要十分小心。飲酒駕車更會犯事。世界上的事什麽都要有節制,有規律,有節制的每天飲一兩小杯,非但無害,還可以延年益壽。我最近看見報章雜誌報導,百歲人瑞的生活起居有很多人瑞都有飲酒習慣。如果我們看看古時候的人們生活,我們會發現很多青銅器皿,大大小小藏酒置酒器皿。可見數千年之前先人們就有飲酒習慣。飲酒可說是我們中國傳統文化之一。

2011年9月21日

简体文本

 

清末大臣李鸿章,他是一个爱吃的专家。生活华丽,家里厨师庸仆数十人。单看他吃螃蟹的用具就有数十件。叉子、钳子、夹子、锤子,洋洋大观一大盒。李鸿章是夜猫子,他爱吃夜点心。有次他出差到国外,晚上肚子饿了,他就与手下一班人到中国饭店去吃饭。那天这家中国饭店生意特好,厨房大厨知道来的是大客人,设法拒绝因饭店厨房菜蔬所剩有限,就只能将各种不同菜蔬加些肉丝炒了一大盘,与其他几碟预备好的菜一起送上台去。李鸿章可能肚子饿了,经过品尝之下,他对那盘大杂烩非常有兴趣,主要是因为他从来没有见到过也更没有吃过。于是他就叫大厨来问一问,这个菜叫什么名字,我怎么从来没有吃过。大厨是广东人,就用广东话回答他,此菜名叫「杂碎」(Chop Suey)。这道菜从此出了名,因为李鸿章爱吃。他每到中国饭店,一定会点这道菜。

中国人是爱喝酒的民族,中国名诗人李白不醉就写不出好诗。中国拳术有醉拳,画师有喝醉了才能画。英伦名书法家赵翼舟,不醉不能作书法。他甚至还将酒渗在墨里,写出醉字来。字的中间是色浓墨,字边上因为有酒形成了浓化的一圈醉字,非常迷人。今年十月二十八日纪念辛亥革命一百年书画展及书法比赛就有他的大作。有兴趣习书法的可以去欣赏赵大师的书法大作 —— 醉字。

中国酒与外国酒不同的地方是,中国酒用五谷米麦玉米等等来酿酒。而外国西洋人一致用葡萄,苹果来酿酒。中国酒装在坛子里,外国酒装在木桶酒瓶里。中国酒分白酒、红酒、黄酒及酒精度较高的白干酒,像茅台、五粮液、二锅头等等。酒是用五粮或水果发酵之后提炼而成的。

古时南方人家都会酿酒,生了女儿就必须要酿一大批的酒,存在床底下,等女儿出嫁时取出来宴客。此酒名为「女儿红」。至于另外有一种名叫「状元红」的酒是不是民间生了儿子,才酿出来等儿子中了状元才宴客用就不得而知。

至今在中国各地仍饮酒成风,几乎到不醉不休的程度。其实喝酒,有节制得喝并不是一件坏事,可以活血又可以提神解忧,可是喝酒成瘾就不好,会伤肝脾胃脏,要十分小心。饮酒驾车更会犯事。世界上的事什么都要有节制,有规律,有节制的每天饮一两小杯,非但无害,还可以延年益寿。我最近看见报章杂志报导,百岁人瑞的生活起居有很多人瑞都有饮酒习惯。如果我们看看古时候的人们生活,我们会发现很多青铜器皿,大大小小藏酒置酒器皿。可见数千年之前先人们就有饮酒习惯。饮酒可说是我们中国传统文化之一。

2011年9月21日

Author 作者

 

Dr Cheng Chan was born in Shanghai; his origin home town is Taizhou, in the Jiangsu Province in China.

He graduated from Shanghai Nanyang Model Middle School in 1947 and Shanghai Aurora University in 1951. He enrolled in Paris University in 1952, and received his ‘Doctor en Droit’ degree in International Law in 1954. During this time, he attended a summer course at ‘School of International Court of Justice ‘ in De Hague Holland and received a certificate in 1953. He enrolled the University of London (UCL) to work on International Law research in London till 1956, and then he went to West Germany to start his business career in Import/Export trading and property investments, etc.  He has become the most successful Chinese in property investments in Spain at that time. In the meantime, he has been nominated by his government to enter ‘Escula Deplomatica Espana’ in Madrid in 1962; he successfully received his diploma in 1964.

He moved to London in 1967. He has been elected the president of the Overseas Chinese Association UK in 1986. He has been invited by Chinese, British and Hong Kong governments to attend The Hong Kong Handover Ceremony in Hong Kong in 1997. He has been selected into ‘The World Most Distinguished Overseas Chinese Album’.

He was appointed to be the Honorary Director of Committees and Visiting Professor in Nanjing University in 1997, the President of China Re-unification Society in UK in 2000, The Overseas Member of CPPCC, Adviser of All China Federation of Returned Overseas Chinese and the Director of Committees of China Council for the Promotion of Peaceful National Reunification, The Committee Member of Overseas Exchange Association of Overseas Chinese Affairs Office of the State Council, and Honorary Doctor in Law of West London University.

Docteur en Droit.
Hon. Guest Professor of Nanjing University
Hon. Director of the Board of Trustees of Nanjing University
Hon. President of Chinese Education Foundation in China
Hon. President of Association for the Promotion of Chinese Education in UK
Overseas Member of CPPCC

 

 

單聲博士生於上海,祖籍江蘇省泰州。1947 年畢業於上海南洋模範中學,1951 年畢業於上海震旦大學,1952 年入巴黎大學,1954 年取得巴黎大學國際法博士學位。同年被邀請赴倫敦大學 UCL 研究國際法,後弃學從商,在西德、西班牙之間經營進出口貿易、旅游事業、房地産投資,六十年代已成爲西班牙最成功華人地産商。在經商期間,1960 年獲得國家保送進入馬德里 ‘西班牙外交學院’ ,1962 年取得畢業文憑。1967 年定居倫敦。1986 年被推選爲英國華僑協會會長。1997 年被中英港三方政府同時邀請,以嘉賓身份出席香港回歸盛典。1992 年被錄入 “世界華人名人錄” ,同年被聘爲南京大學名譽校董及客座教授。2000 年被全英 202 個僑團推選爲 ‘全英華人華僑中國統一促進會’ 總會長至今。2005 年被甄選爲全國政協海外委員、全國中華歸國僑聯特聘顧問、中國和平統一促進會理事、國務院僑辦海外交流協會常務理事及榮獲西倫敦大學榮譽法學博士等多項榮譽職位連任至今。

法國巴黎大學國際法學博士,英國西倫敦大學榮譽法學博士
中國南京大學客座教授
中國南京大學名譽校董
華僑教育基金會名譽會長
英國中文教育促進會榮譽會長
全國政協海外列席委員

 

 

单声博士生於上海,祖籍江苏省泰州。1947 年毕业於上海南洋模范中学,1951 年毕业於上海震旦大学,1952 年入巴黎大学,1954 年取得巴黎大学国际法博士学位。同年被邀请赴伦敦大学 UCL 研究国际法,后弃学从商,在西德、西班牙之间经营进出口贸易、旅游事业、房地产投资,六十年代已成为西班牙最成功华人地产商。在经商期间,1960 年获得国家保送进入马德里 ‘西班牙外交学院’ ,1962年 取得毕业文凭。1967 年定居伦敦。1986 年被推选为英国华侨协会会长。1997 年被中英港三方政府同时邀请,以嘉宾身份,出席香港回归盛典。1992 年被錄入 “世界华人名人錄” ,同年被聘为南京大学名誉校董及客座教授。2000 年被全英 202 个侨团推选为 ‘全英华人华侨中国统一促进会’ 总会长至今。2005 年被甄选为全国政协海外委员、全国中华归国侨联特聘顾问、中国和平统一促进会理事、国务院侨办海外交流协会常务理事及荣获西伦敦大学荣誉法学博士等多项荣誉职位连任至今。

法国巴黎大学国际法学博士,英国西伦敦大学荣誉法学博士
中国南京大学客座教授
中国南京大学名誉校董
华侨教育基金会名誉会长
英国中文教育促进会荣誉会长
全国政协海外列席委员

 

Translator 譯者

 

Meiling Sun

I have a BSc (Hons) Psychology (Open), however, I have not engaged in the profession I studied for but focussed on my passion in interpreting and translation work.  I was brought up in Singapore thus was fortunate to have adopted English, Mandarin, Hokkien, Cantonese, Teowchew at a young age.  I studied French for five years and presently I am at the Advanced level for Spanish.  I have worked for many different organizations in relation to interpreting work, for instance Prestige Network, CHIC (Chinese Health Information Centre - a charity), Language Empire, Applied Language Solutions etc.  As a result, I went to many different venues, for instance hospitals, health centres, probation offices, police stations and also in April 2009, I interpreted for Christian Dior in the Trafford Centre between an internationally well-known make-up artist, English/Spanish speaking colleagues and their clients.  I also interpreted for a cross-Atlantic Taiwanese Professor in connection with another BBC radio programme.  In addition, I also co-translated the history of Weihaiwei from Chinese into English for publication as well as translating the biography of Dr Chan that is still in progress.

 

孫美玲

本人擁有心理學學士學位,但並未入行我所修專業,卻一直衷於我熱愛的口譯和筆譯工作。我在新加坡長大,因此有幸從小就接受了英語、普通話、客家話、廣東話、潮州話多種語言。我還學過五年法語,現在西班牙語也達到了高級水平。我曾在多個機構從事過翻譯工作,如Prestige Network, CHIC (華人健康資訊中心--慈善團體), Language Empire, Applied Language Solutions等。 因此,我到過諸如醫院、醫療中心、感化院、警察局等各種場所。2009年4月我還被迪奧(Christian Dior) 公司指派到Trafford Centre為一名國際知名化妝師,講英語/西班牙語的工作人員及其客戶進行現場翻譯。我還為與BBC電臺節目有關聯的一位跨大西洋的臺灣教授擔任翻譯。另外,我與他人合作將威海衛的歷史從中文翻譯成英文,並出版。同時,我正在翻譯單聲博士的自傳。

 

孙美玲

本人拥有心理学学士学位,但并未入行我所修专业,却一直衷于我热爱的口译和笔译工作。我在新加坡长大,因此有幸从小就接受了英语、普通话、客家话、广东话、潮州话多种语言。我还学过五年法语,现在西班牙语也达到了高级水平。我曾在多个机构从事过翻译工作,如Prestige Network, CHIC (华人健康信息中心--慈善团体), Language Empire, Applied Language Solutions等。 因此,我到过诸如医院、医疗中心、感化院、警察局等各种场所。2009年4月我还被迪奥(Christian Dior) 公司指派到Trafford Centre为一名国际知名化妆师,讲英语/西班牙语的工作人员及其客户进行现场翻译。我还为与BBC电台节目有关联的一位跨大西洋的台湾教授担任翻译。另外,我与他人合作将威海卫的历史从中文翻译成英文,并出版。同时,我正在翻译单声博士的自传。